Total Quality Management -TQM
The attempt to establish a culture of quality affecting the attitudes and actions of every employee. This is usually attempted by trying to get every work group (or department) to think of those they work for as customers, even if they are fellow employees. An example would be for the maintenance engineer to treat a shop-floor worker with a defective machine as a valued customer, rather than as a nuisance. Other main features of TQM include:
• The use of quality circles
• emphasis upon service and after-sales service quality as well as quality manufacture
• The idea that high quality (and low cost) stem from getting things right first time.
American firms with a long experience of TQM have reported that change occurs far more slowly than managers expect, leading to a phase of disenchantment with the process.