The danger that a senior manager – wanting to be kept fully informed by all his or her subordinates – becomes swamped by the volume of information. As a result, the manager may miss key points or fail to respond to urgent requests. Information overload can so reduce effectiveness as to put the employee under great stress through his or her inability to cope. This has always been a problem, but the speed and convenience of e-mail may have made the situation worse. The solution is usually to encourage the manager to delegate more wholeheartedly, trusting subordinates to get on with their tasks. This reduces the need for upward communication.