occurs when a firm has eliminated all the physical and contractual barriers between grades of staff. These forms of class discrimination might include: separate canteens, different working hours, different pay terms and conditions (management on salaries, workers on piece rate ), or clocking-in for shop-floor workers only. Once a firm has removed such divisive features, it can hope to eliminate the feeling of ‘ them and us ’ that pervades many organisations. Japanese firms go so far as to insist on the same overalls for all managers and workers, or even morning exercises. Both are to establish single status by demonstrating that all employees wear the same work clothes and participate in the same morning activity.